Part 3 - Neuromodulator Education

This page contains educational resources specific to the neuromodulators and fillers available at Peach Skin Clinic. This page is not meant to diagnose or recommend. If you have any questions, please contact us at one our facilities. 


Muscles considered for aesthetic use of neuromodulators

Muscles of the forehead

The forehead is very simple in terms of number of muscles. It only has one muscle which is called the frontalis. Although it is just one muscle, it can behave as two. For example, when a patient raises one eye brow only , then the muscle is behaving like if it was two muscles. The frontalis is located beneath the skin of our forehead and stretches from temple to temple. At the hairline, the frontalis muscle shades off into an aponeurosis with the thick fascia of the vertex of the skull. Even though the frontalis is a single muscle, it still works on conjuction with other facial muscles. Glabella frown lines

 
frontalis.png
 

Muscles of the eye

Two muscles are located underneath the eyebrows and above the eyes. These muscles are responsible for a patient's habitual facial expressions. The muscles located in this area are the orbicularis, the levator palpebrae, and the corrugator supercilii. 

The orbicularis starts from the nose and wraps over the orb of the eye, which forms the eyelid. This muscle is a sphincter as it contracts to completely close the eye. When the entire muscle is activated (for example, when you tightly close the eye), the skin of the forehead, temple, and cheek is pulled together. This causes folds to be visible. As we get older, because of loss of collagen and elasticity, the folds start to become creased and create what is known as crow's feet. 

 
 

Muscles of the nasal region

The muscle that is located in this region is known as the procerus which draws up the nose and down the central brow area. The procerus makes transverse squinting, which cause wrinkles across the nose, possible. 

Muscles of the mouth: Above the mouth

  • Quadratus labii superioris
  • Levator labii superioris
  • Levator anguli oris
  • Zygomaticus

The muscle located in this areas is called the quadratus labii superioris. It is a broad muscle that extends from the side of the nose and the upper lip to the zygomatic bone, or cheek bone This muscle acts to elevate the upper lip and at the same time pushes them slightly forward. Some parts of these muscle help form what is known as the marrionette lines. These lines extend from the corner of the mouth down to the jaw which gives the patient lines making the look like a puppet. 

The movement of the levator labii superioris and levator anguli oris is to raise the angle of the mouth. This assist in forming the nasiolabial ridge. As a patient becomes older, the ridge becomes deeper and more pronounced. 

Muscles of the mouth: Below the mouth

  • Levator labii inferioris
  • Depressor anguli oris
  • Depressor labii inferioris

The levator labii inferioris acts to raise the lower lip. The depressor anguli oris and the depressor labii inferioris are responsible for the movement of the lower jaw and lower lip.

Muscles of the mouth: Around the mouth

  • Orbicularis oris mentalis
  • Quadratus labii inferioris
  • Risorius
  • Buccinator

The orbicularis circles the mouth and although it may act like a sphincter, it can be much more. The most common action that this muscle is to close the muscles. This muscle can also close the lips and make them protrude. For example, sucking on a straw. The quadratus labii inferioris draws the lip down and slightly to the side. The risorius is responsible for retracting the angle of the mouth downward. This expression is commonly seen as a grinning one. The buccinator is responsible for the movement and position that is created when we whistle.  


Tips for health professionals

  • Facial anatomy and analysis is key to successful treatment
  • Understand how aging affects all the movements of the muscle. 
  • Understand that beauty standards may be different from region to region. 
  • Rules of symmetry can be relative to specific patients
  • Patient communication on what is possible is important for patient satisfaction..